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74HC595 and LEDs
74HC595 is a Serial to Parallel Converter which has eight outputs (perfect) and three inputs that you use to feed data into it a bit at a time.
This chip makes it a little slower to drive the LEDs (you can only change the LEDs about 500,000 times a second instead of 8,000,000 a second) but it's still really fast, way faster than humans can detect, so it's worth it. 74HC595 shift register
is a type of chip that holds what can be thought of as eight memo ry locations, each of which can either be a 1 or a 0. To set each of these values on or off, we feed in the data using the 'Data' and 'Clock' pins of the chip.
4 digit 7 segment display
7 segment displays consist of 7 LEDs, called segments, arranged in the shape of an “8”. Most 7-segment displays actually have 8 segments, with a dot on the right side of the digit that serves as a decimal point.
When using 4-digit 7-segment display, the common anode or common cathode pin is used to control which digit is displayed. Even though there is only one digit working, the principle of Persistence of Vision enables you to see all numbers displayed because each The scanning speed is so fast that you hardly notice the intervals.
By building the circuit, users can make a simple display showing certain numbers, or more complexly, a count-up timer or an electric rolling dice.
Stepper motors are DC motors that move in discrete steps. They have multiple coils that are organized in groups called "phases". By energizing each phase in sequence, the motor will rotate, one step at a time. With a computer controlled stepping you
can achieve very precise positioning and/or speed control. For this reason, stepper motors are the motor of choice for many precision motion control applications. the simplest way
of interfacing a unipolar stepper motor to Compatible With Arduino is to use a breakout
for ULN2003A transistor array chip, Applying voltage to each of the coils in a specific sequence.